Citations

Works Cited

” .” About Medieval and Renaissance Lathes. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.bloodandsawdust.com/sca/lathes.html>.

“Ancient Egyptians Used Pulley System to Build Pyramids.” Daily Herald. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20121218/news/712189835/>.

Chuan, Lim Si. “The History of Pulleys.” Prezi.com. N.p., 17 Oct. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://prezi.com/l_c7ta7mgurg/the-history-of-pulleys/>.

“Crane (machine).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_(machine)>.

“Egyptian Pulley.” Egyptianpulley. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.egyptianpulley.com/Home_Page.html>.

“History of Construction.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_construction>.

“Kidipede: History for Kids.” Pulley. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://scienceforkids.kidipede.com/physics/machines/pulley.htm>.

Latzko, Laura. “Facts About Pulleys | EHow.” EHow. Demand Media, 02 Jan. 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_5824536_pulleys.html>.

“Line Shaft.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_shaft>.

“Machine-History.Com.” Pulley. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.machine-history.com/node/309>.

“Overhead Crane.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhead_crane>.

“Power Loom.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_loom>.

“Pulley.” – New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pulley>.

“Pulley.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulley>.

“Textile Manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_manufacture_during_the_Industrial_Revolution>.

“The Textile Revolution.” About.com Inventors. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://inventors.about.com/od/indrevolution/a/history_textile.htm>.

“Work and Six Simple Machines.” Work and Six Simple Machines. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://bookbuilder.cast.org/view_print.php?book=21173>.

Process Journal

These are my process journal entries that I kept throughout the construction stage.

Day 1:

During day 1, in DT I gathered all the materials and started cutting the pieces. I cut two of the pieces required in that period. In Humanities, I started on my historical investigation today and made my plan and layout for it. I decided that I would do the deeper investigation on pulleys. In Science, I started one of the several experiments in science class.

The experiment is on the amount of work done with inclined planes and vertically lifting an object. I did not consult anyone on this day. In terms of progress, I think I am doing great progress because I already made the inner parts of my product at home and now I only have to make the outer parts and paint my product.

I think I am also keeping up to date with Science and Humanities. I did not have any difficulties on this day and I did not make any changes to my product or my website. My product is not finished so I could not test it.

Day rating (progress): 9/10

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Day 2:

I did not have DT today. In Humanities, I continued to work on the historical investigation of simple machines. I finished the short introductions about all the 6 simple machines and began my in-depth investigation. I picked the pulley to do this. I did not have Science today. I sent an e-mail to Mr. Thorburn to ask questions about materials to use in construction.

I think that my progress is good until now because I am getting lots of work done in Humanities and I am almost finished making my product in DT. I cannot continue to work on Science outside of class because data from the experiments is required. I have not made changes to my product or my website. I have not faced any difficulties until now.

Day rating (progress): 9/10

Day 3:

Today I missed all my classes because I was playing in a football tournament for the school. I think that this is not a big hindrance to my progress and I think that I will not need to work extra to catch up with the work. I did not make any changes to my product or website. I think that the work will not be difficult because I missed this day. My product is not finished so I cannot test it.

Day rating (progress): 7/10

 Day 4:

I did not have DT today. I missed Humanities due to MAP testing. I continued with the experiments in science class. I got half of the experiments done, and only have a bit of work on the experiments left for next period. I consulted Mr. Herrmann to find out how to go through the experiments and what to focus on during the construction phase for science. I think I am up the date with all the work except in Science.

I missed quite a few science periods due to MAP testing and ISL tournaments so I am a bit behind on the experiments. I have made several changes to my website layout to make it look more aesthetically pleasing and interesting. I do not have any difficulties but I think that I might be lagging a bit in science because I am behind on the experiments.

Day rating (progress): 8/10

I am pulling the bottle up at a steady rate.

Day 5:

In DT, I cut all the rest of the pieces form the High-density foam board and used contact adhesive to glue two of the pieces together. I continued with my investigation on simple machines in Humanities. In Science, I have not yet finished the experiments and could not start the calculations. I think I am a bit behind. I did not consult anyone today. I think I am getting a bit behind on Humanities because I missed a lot of periods in humanities.

I am continuing with Humanities at home so I think I can catch up. After checking my product with different a voltmeter, I realized that the voltage does not need to be stabilized. I checked the voltage on a voltmeter and the maximum it got to be was 6 volts. This is enough to charge all the USB charged devices. I saw that it was producing the correct amount of voltage. I also tested it with a USB charged video game and it worked.

I am not having any difficulties or challenges with making the product or the website but I am having difficulties managing my time.

Day rating (progress): 7/10

Image 1060 31102013047

Day 6:

I smoothed some of the pieces today and got Mr. Thorburn to cut a hole for my handle. I then glued the inner parts of my project into the to glued pieces last time. I then glued the other sides and covered it from the top as well I finished making my product. I did not have Humanities today but I worked on it at home. I finished the experiments about the inclined plane in science and made calculations about the work done.

I consulted Mr. Herrmann on how to go through the experiments before finishing the experiments. I think I am still a bit behind in Humanities. I need to continue to work on Humanities work at home. I think I am up to date with DT and science. I made lots of changes to my website today. I changed the header image to a more aesthetically pleasing one and I also changed the theme. It is much better than when the IICS theme was activated.

I used my product with a phone and it worked. I also checked with a voltmeter. I think I have a challenge with planning my time because I am a bit behind on humanities.

Day rating (progress): 9/10

311020130483110201305231102013051Image 1062Image 1063

 

Day 7:

I finished my product, so I left it at home and continued with my process journal entries. I did not have Humanities. I am still behind in Humanities so I am doing a bit more then 1 hour a week of homework. I did not have Science. I am still behind on the calculations. I have not made any changes to my product or my website. I tested my product with a phone and voltmeter and it still works. I have not had any difficulties but I think I should start doing more homework from science to finish it. My product still works with various devices.

Day rating (progress): 8/10

Day 8:

I brought my product to school to test it and take images and videos, but a classmate tried using it and it accidentally broke. So I fixed it with contact adhesive. In Humanities, I continued with the deeper investigation in humanities, but I am still a bit behind. In Science, I finally finished the calculations and started on the evaluation. I found out that we wouldn’t get a lot more time in Science to work on Construction stage work; instead, we started on a new investigation that is not included in the construction stage.

I am still behind on Science as well. I think I need to step up and do some extra homework to quickly get these done. I did not consult I am having difficulties managing my time; I need to work on the stuff on bus rides so I can get it done. My bus has no Internet so I can’t do humanities work. I tried testing my product but the glue hadn’t set so the handle broke again. My progress isn’t going as well as I had hoped.

Day rating (progress): 5/10

Day 9:

I did not have any of the subjects today. I worked at home but I have not finished. I am doing about 10 minutes of homework everyday, I think at this rate, I can get the work done in time, but I want to finish it before hand so I can get some feedback. My progress is average. I am having a bit difficulty on doing my process journal entries everyday.

I forget to do them for one or tow days, but I manage to write then down after. I talked to my mentor and we organized a meeting for the next extended homeroom time because she is my homeroom teacher. I am waiting for the next DT period so I can fix my product. It cannot work without the handle so I could not test it.

Day rating (progress): 7/10

Day 10:

In DT, I applied contact adhesive to the handle again and waited for it to dry. At the end of the day, I tried using my product and the handle broke again. I think this might be a problem if it keeps braking like this. In science, I started a new investigation that is not linked into the Construction stage. I think this is not a very good idea because we are working on the interdisciplinary unit but this is only in science.

This investigation could be done after the unit was over but it is happening in between. I found out that there will be another investigation, which will be linked the interdisciplinary unit, but it will be done after the one that is not linked to the unit. In Humanities, I continued with the deeper investigation on pulleys. I am still a bit behind because I did not get a lot of Humanities homework done from the beginning.

I did not consult with anyone today, but I am waiting for my meeting with my mentor. I am still having difficulties with managing time, and filling my process journal entries. I could not test my product because it is still broken. This could turn into a big problem.

Day rating (progress): 6/10

Image 1060

Day 11:

Today, I missed all the periods because we went on a field trip to the Koc museum. It was to teach us more about machines. But I think it was a waste of time because anything we did there was not organized. It would have been better if we had some kind of sheet to fill out so we could learn more. I tried to find out more about the simple machines and a place I liked particularly was the lumber mill because

I could see how all the different simple machines worked together to cut the log. I am waiting for my meeting with my mentor, which is tomorrow. I have not consulted with anyone today. I could not fix my product because I have not had a DT product. I think this can be fixed but it could turn into a major problem. My progress is not going very well, I need to do some extra homework to get it done and receive feedback.

Day rating (progress): 7/10

 Day 12:

In DT, I asked Mr. Thorbrun about why the contact adhesive was not working, and he said that the glue on the product needs to be set in one position for 1 hour. Every time I tried using it before, it was in less then an hour so it broke. Mr. Thorburn helped me to glue it and told me not to move it for an hour. In Science, I continued with the investigation that is not linked with the construction stage or the interdisciplinary unit.

I did not consult with anyone today. I think that we should get an extension because a lot of the periods have been missed due to the field trips, MAP testing and the ISL tournaments. I was supposed to have the meeting with my mentor but she had other plans for homeroom and we didn’t have our meeting. I think that my progress is going good and I will be done with just enough time to get some feedback. I tested my product after with a device and it worked. I have not had any difficulties today.

Day rating (progress): 9/10

Day 13:

I did not have DT today. In Humanities, I continued with the deeper investigation. It turns out that picking the pulley for deeper investigation is very difficult because I tried for a long time and could not find any good source that were related to it.

Every source said something different. At the end, I found something that was on a few different website so I used that/ I science, we did a lever challenge with a classmate. It was not related to the interdisciplinary unit, so I think that it was something that could be done later. I would have liked this time to work on the science part of the construction stage. I did not consult anyone today. I tested my product with several devices and it worked.

I am having some difficulty doing the process journal entries. I don’t do them for 2 or 3 days because I don’t get the time to. My progress is going okay, but I would like to speed it up so I can get feedback.

Day rating (progress): 9/10

 Day 14:

Today I brought my product to school to video it and take photos. It started working and was charging the phone but then another part of the handle broke. I applied contact adhesive to it and let it dry. At the end of the day, it worked with no problems at all. I decided to not bring it to school anymore until the due date because I feel there is some kind of jinx on it.

I did not have Humanities or Science today. My progress is going good because I finished making my product and I can utilize the DT periods for other work. I found out that we got a one-week extension on it because of all the periods that were missed.

I am feeling relieved and think I can do my work slower now. I am still having difficulties doing my process journals on time, but I am still doing them after sometime.

Day rating (progress): 9/10

Here is a video of my product working:

Day 15:

Today in DT, I went to the library to work on the humanities part because I was done with construction. I got a lot of work done in the library and caught up to where I was suppose to be at this point. I don’t need to do extra work on humanities now and I have enough time to receive feedback for the Humanities part. In Science, I continued with the investigation that was not required in the interdisciplinary unit.

I caught up with a lot of humanities work and just need to make some final changes and it will be ready to upload. I am still having some difficulties keeping up with my process journals and I still haven’t had a meeting with my mentor. I think I should stop my work at the end of each period and do a process journal entry so I can’t forget to do it. My product is still working with various devices and I have added little feature to it. I drew an arrow towards the way it is supposed to be cranked. I did not make changes to my blog.

Day rating (progress): 10/10

Day 16:

I did not have DT, Humanities, or Science today, but I got work done at home. I think now that my progress has gotten a lot better after the double period in the library. I also worked a lot over the weekends so I got lots of work done. I didn’t have the chance to start on the science part because of the lever investigation.

But I started working on it slowly. I think I can get it done and ask for some feedback in time. I did not consult anyone today. My product still works with various devices and I have not made changes to my website. I am still having difficulties with keeping up to date with my process journals.

Day rating (progress): 8/10

Day 17:

Today, in DT, I continued to work on my process journals. I am almost up to date with them. I am only behind on two of the entries. In Science, we did something called the lever challenge. We challenged our partners by putting a weight on one side, and the other person needed to balance it by putting a different weight in a different position on the other side. I have done a lot of work on science and I am almost done.

In Humanities, I worked on my historical investigation. Mr. Johnson was giving everyone feedback but I could never get my turn. I did not consult anyone today. My product still works with various devices. My progress is going pretty well and I am ready to receive feedback. I am not having any difficulties.

Day rating (progress): 8/10

Day 18:

I did not have DT or science today. In Humanities, I worked on the deeper investigation, and finished it today. I couldn’t get my turn for feedback today so I am waiting for the next humanities period to receive feedback.

I did not make changes to my product or my website and I am not having any difficulties. I think I might not be able to receive feedback from Mr. Johnson because there are so many people who want feedback before me. I did not consult anyone today.

Day rating (progress): 8/10

Day 19:

In DT, I worked on my process journal entries. In Science, we got some time to work on the construction stage and I managed to get some feedback from Mr. Herrmann. I did not have Humanities today. I finally got a meeting with my mentor but I think it was useless. All we had to do was tell her where we are and how much work we did. And then the mentor types it down.

I don’t think this is helping us with our projects. I started uploading all my work from the document to the website. I finished uploading all the work but I still have a little bit left for the process journal and testing against specification. I did not make changes to my product.

Day rating (progress): 8/10 

Day 20:

Today in Humanities I worked on my website and created all my citations. I also worked on my process journals. In Science, I worked on the construction stage. I did not have DT today. I uploaded the citations to my website but I did not make changes to my product. I got some feedback from Mr. Johnson today. I also consulted Mr. Thorburn on how to do the testing against specification part. My progress is going well and I am almost done.

Day rating (progress): 10/10 

Day 21:

I missed all periods today because I was participating in a Badminton tournament. I am done with Humanities and Science but I still have to give my product to Mr. Thorburn. I think my progress went well for this stage and I am relieved that this stage is over. Now only the Presentation stage is left and I think it will be quite easy.

Day rating (progress): 10/10 

Historical Investigation

Screw

http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/275781-29210-0.jpg

The screw is a simple machine that is an inclined plane wound around a cylinder. It is used to keep things together or to screw something onto the wall. Screws are replacements for nails and are usually stronger. Screws are used to make furniture, electronic items, used to hang up things on walls, etc.

Pulley

http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/Archives/ED101sp06/cjhpyo/pulley%20image.gif

The pulley is a simple machine that changes the direction that the force is applied to. It has a grooved wheel that turns around the fulcrum. And a rope, chain or other of the sort is used in the grove to lift or pull heavy weights. Some examples of where pulleys are used in are window blinds, flagpoles, Mast of a sailboat, elevators, and industrial cranes.

Wheel and axel

Screen Shot 2013-10-23 at 9.46.25 PM

The wheel and axel is a simple machine that was crucial to human evolution. It is a modified lever. The axel serves as the fulcrum and the wheel is the lever turning in circles. It makes moving around big and heavy objects easier. A few examples of the wheel and axel are the wheels in a car, bicycle handlebar, doorknobs, screwdriver, fan blades and airplane propellers.

Inclined Plane

Screen Shot 2013-10-23 at 9.45.51 PM

The inclined plane is a tilted or sloping surface that makes moving objects to a height easier. It decreases the amount of effort that is required to move the object but does not decrease the amount of work that is required. Some examples are ramps, skateboard ramps, wheelchair ramps, stairs, ladders and escalators.

Lever

http://financialphilosopher.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/08/18/lever_image.gif

A lever is a stick with a fulcrum at different positions for different uses. Levers are qualified into three classes, 1st class levers, 2nd class levers, and 3rd class levers. In a 1st class lever, the fulcrum is in the middle. The effort force and resistance move in opposite directions. It is used to lift something, for example, the seesaw. A 2nd class lever has the fulcrum closer to one end; it is closer to the resistance. It produces a gain in the force. An example is the wheelbarrow. A 3rd class lever has the fulcrum on one end. The effort is excreted between the fulcrum and resistance. The amount of force becomes low but it results in an increase in speed and distance. A few examples are a baseball bat, broom, and shovel.

Wedge

A wedge is a simple machine that similar to an inclined plane. There can be different forms of it. Some forms are like inclined planes; some are tapering to the edge from both sides. It increases the amount of force applied on the object. It is used with an object when the object stays in place and the wedge moves through it. Some examples are doorstops, axe, log splitter, knife, chisel, etc.

 Deeper Investigation:

As is the case with many simple machines, the exact origins or discovery of the pulley is unknown. There is evidence that pulleys were first used in 2630 BC in Egypt to build the pyramids. The Egyptians used a pulley/ inclined plane combination to move stone blocks that weighed up to 15 tons. These were pulled using pulleys and only a few people pulled a block of stone almost 10 times their size. Pulleys were also used in Mesopotamia to hoist water in 1500 BC. Some other sources say that in 287 BC – 215 BC, the ancient Greek mathematician and philosopher Archimedes improved the pulley and is known to have invented the compounded pulleys. There were legends that Archimedes pulled a trireme filled with men into harbor using pulleys and his own strength. Archimedes is a known mathematician and philosopher and as a scholar, he studied about simple machines. He once said “Give me a lever long and enough and a place to stand, and I will move the world.”

Portrait of Archimedes http://static4.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20130708083655/olympians/images/2/20/Archy.jpg

An ancient civilization that benefited from the use of pulleys is the Egyptian civilization. The ancient Egyptians used the pulley to build one of the most magnificent monuments in the world; the pyramids. The pyramids were big structures made from huge blocks of stone for noble people as graves. Because the stone blocks were so big, they could not be moved by the average strength of one man. So the Egyptians used pulleys to increase the force and move the blocks. They also used ramps to move the blocks up to a height. The pulleys were made of wood, rope and sometimes copper for a stronger axle. Even though the Egyptians first used the pulley, Archimedes was the first to truly explain the concept of simple machines like the pulley and lever.

Depiction of Pyramids being built. http://www.ask-aladdin.com/images/pyramid_building.jp

During the renaissance, the re-birth of arts, learning, and knowledge, the pulley was greatly used in many areas to create or change many things. Besides lifting heavy loads, changing the direction of the force, and lifting objects to a height, the pulley was also used for other things during the renaissance. An example is the lathe. The lathe is a machine that uses the pulley to do things like woodworking, woodcarving, and ivory working. The piece of ivory or wood is placed around a rod and with the help of a flat belt pulley it is spun in circles, and rotates very fast. A flat belt pulley is made up of two grooved wheels, and a belt or rope. The belt is wrapped around the wheels so that if one wheel is turned, the other wheel will also turn. A pedal was connected to the wheel and when the pedal was pressed and let go of rapidly, it turned the wheel. Decorations made from the lathe were part of the magnificent art in the renaissance period. Here is a design of a lathe:

 

http://www.renaissancewoodworker.com/wp-content/uploads/davincilathe.jpg

Here is a video of a lathe in action:

Another time the pulley was changed and improved was during the industrial revolution. During the industrial revolution, the pulley was put to many uses, inside factories and outside factories as well. One use of the pulley in the industrial revolution was the machinery in textile factories. Big looms were made which implemented lots of pulleys to make fabrics from wool, yarn and other fibers. The machines that were used to make these, consisted of many pulleys, but thee pulleys were different then any made before. These pulleys were steam powered or motorized; instead of force being applied from people or animals, a steam engine or motor was used. The textile factories used something called a line shaft; a machine made from a combination of gears and pulleys that took power from a steam engine and distributed it to different looms in different locations. The pulleys were made of metal wheels and belts instead of wood and rope. This method of using pulleys was used from the industrial revolution to the early 20th century, when technological advances made line shafts out of date.

Here is an image of a line shaft that was used in the industrial revolution:

http://www.old-engine.com/image/belts.gif

Since the Egyptians building the pyramids, to the renaissance lathe, and the textile factories from the industrial revolution, the pulley has changed a lot to the present time. A common everyday object that utilizes the pulley is in cranes. The ancient Greeks invented the first crane but it required people or animals to power it. The first mechanical crane, steam powered, was introduced in the 18th century. These cranes were used to lift loads in and out of harbors, and ports. Until now, cranes have been improved a lot and different types have been made to use for different uses. A very common crane is an overhead crane. An overhead crane is a crane that is on the ceiling of a building, hence the name overhead crane, and has a pulley system the goes sideways and back and forth to move objects around. Some applications of the overhead cranes are in factories, metal refinement, and storage areas. In metal refining, an overhead crane handles the hot liquid metal and moves it around. In factories, heavy loads are moved from places to place. And it is used in storage areas to move around heavy packages. The crane has changed from lifting loads in harbors to moving around molten metal, building skyscrapers, and moving cement hundreds of feet into the air.

Here is an image:

http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00liQEuoGyvaOh/Double-Girder-Overhead-Crane.jpg

Here is a video to explain how the overhead crane works:

If the overhead crane was not invented, handling metals would be very difficult because overhead cranes are used to refine metals. A lot of the things around the world that made out of metal would be very difficult to make. Even the tip of a pen is made of metal, and metal has to be refined to be used to make something as small as that. The overhead crane has improved the world because it made many different things easy to do. Refining metals, moving big loads in confined places, and moving packages for shipment. In my opinion, life would be slower because a lot of the metals would not be refined quickly, loading ships would take longer, and factory work would be slow. The crane has probably made the world better because it makes things a lot easier for people. But then again, it uses oil to make them work, which causes a lot of pollution.

Here is a perzi about the pulley:

 

Scientific Application

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to find out how inclined planes work by doing experiments. Five different slopes were used with an object and a scale to measure the work done. It had to be compared with the work done when lifting the object straight up with pulling the object along an inclined plane.

Hypothesis and explanation: If an object is to be pulled 0.2 m up, then it more work is done to pull it over a ramp instead of pulling it straight up because there is a greater distance over the ramp and W = fd. The object has less work done when pulling straight up rather then over a ramp because there is a small distance when going up even though there is a big load force required. I found from previous experiences that more force is required when pulling an object straight up rather than over a ramp. But because of the effort distance is greater than the load distance there would probably be more work done to pull over the ramp and from my previous experiences I know that less force is required to pull an object over a ramp rather then straight up. So when using inclined planes, less force is required but more work is done.

Variables:

The slopes of the ramp, what angle the ramp was on, were the independent variable. It is found by multiplying the rise and the run of the ramp. I think it is the independent variable because that was what the work depended on. It could be a stand-alone piece of information that did not depend on anything else. Because this is the independent variable, it is shown on the x-axis in a graph.

The dependent variable was the amount of work done. It is the dependent variable because it cannot be found out without knowing the slope. The work is found by multiplying the effort distance and the amount of force used, and the effort distance cannot be found without the slope. So if there is no slope to measure with, the amount of work done cannot be found out. The dependent variable is shown on the y-axis in a graph.

The controlled variables are:

  • Mass of object – the mass of the object has to remain the same for all five trials to get accurate data. If the mass changed, it could have given very different data for each trial.
  • Height of ramp – the height of the ramp had to stay 0.2 m so that the data collected can be accurate.
  • Ramp – the ramp has to be the same ramp for all five trials. For example, a smooth wooden ramp is used for trial one and a rough and carpet-covered ramp is used for trial 2. This would give inaccurate data.
  • Same object – the object also has to be the same. Another object with the same mass cannot be used because the surface of the other object might be different. For example, for trial one, a water bottle is used, and for trial two, a toy car with the same mass is used and is pulled along its wheels.

All the controlled variables have to remain the same and must be readied carefully so the data collected is not inaccurate.

Method:

To do the experiment we needed:

  • Ramp – a wooden ramp to use.
  • Water bottle – a half filled water bottle to use as the object to pull up.
  • Newton scale – to measure the force of the object.
  • Meter stick – to measure the rise, run, height, effort distance, and load distance.
  • Books – to prop the ramp.
  • Laptop – to record data and make calculations.
  • Marker – to mark distances on the ramp.
  • Camera – to take photos throughout the experiments.

After all the materials were collected, we went through the experiment step by step:

  1. Hook scale to water bottle.

    photo 4

    The scale has a hook which can be used to hook objects.

  2. Use meter stick to measure 0.2 m straight up.

    photo 1

    I am using the meter stick to measure 0.2 m straight up. The ramp and the hold height will be the same so i did this next to the ramp.

  3. Lift bottle with scale up 0.2m and measure the force.

    photo 4

    The red scale is where the force is shown.

  4. Calculate the work done.

    Photo on 18-11-13 at 18.21

    I am calculating the work done using a calculator.

  5. Set up ramp using books and the wooden plank.

    photo 3

    I am setting up a ramp using books. The books are hidden under the ramp.

  6. Measure the rise.

    photo 1

    I am measuring the rise to the desired height.

  7. Measure the run.

    photo 2

    I am measuring the run of the ramp.

  8. Calculate slope.

    Photo on 18-11-13 at 18.21

    I am calculating the slope using a calculator.

  9. Measure effort distance to the height desired.

    photo 3

    I am measuring the effort distance.

  10. Mark height using a marker.

    photo 1

    After I measured the height, I marked it with a marker.

  11. Hook scale to bottle.

    photo 4

    I hooked the bottle to the scale.

  12. Put bottle against ramp at the bottom. photo
  13. Pull it up at a steady rate using the scale.

    I am pulling the bottle up at a steady rate.

    I am pulling the bottle up at a steady rate.

  14. Get your partner to check how much force is being applied.

    photo

    My partner checked the force applied on the scale.

  15. Note down the force in computer.
  16. Calculate the work done.

    Photo on 18-11-13 at 18.21

    I am calculating the work done using a calculator.

  17. Repeat steps 5 through 16 four more times, with different slopes in every trial.

Evaluation:

I think that the data we got from this table is not very reliable because we did not get a lot of similar data. The only similar data was when two of the trials got the same amount of work done. Ideally what should have happened was that the amount of work done should have been the same throughout the experiment, but only the force and distance changing. But in our experiment, the work changed at many places throughout the graph. I think this could have been because one of our variables was incorrect.

During the experiment, I made sure everything was done carefully. The bottle was the same mass all the time, the height was always 0.2 m, and we used the same scale for all the trials. But I think that the first trial might have gone wrong. This may have happened because we did it in a different place then the rest of the trials and we didn’t use books for the first trial as well. This means that the controlled variable might have changed. The last to trials could have gone wrong because the ramp was limited and we could not change the effort distance at a steady rate.  I think another reason the data was wrong would be because we only measured everything once, and did not double check. This is probably a major thing in the experiments that did not allow us to get the results that we should have gotten.

I think that the experiment was not very fair because we changed location for half of the experiment and this could give us inaccurate data. I also think that the mass of the object was not controlled because we did the experiment and three different times and the bottle had to be that much emptied every time. We did empty it to the required mass, but I think it could have been a bit off the two other times.

If I got the chance to do this experiment again, I would make sure to use different ramps that are made specifically for that height. I would also do several trials and check multiple times so I can rule out the ones that are a bit different. I will also make sure to use the same things and not change position of where to do the experiment so accurate data can be collected. I would also use a sensitive weighing scale to measure the weight and mass. I will also keep comparing data with the sample data to see if the same data is received.

After I saw the sample data, I was confused why our data was so different than the sample data even though I made sure to not make mistakes. But then, I realized that there were many times and place where the experiment could have gone wrong. In the sample data, the work barely changes throughout the graph and different trials. This is because the force and the distance change so they equal out the work because w=fd. Our data was very different from the sample data. This was because we had many mistakes in the fairness and variables.

Here is how my graph looked and here is also the table of our data:

Ramp 1: Ramp 2: Ramp 3: Ramp 4: Ramp 5:
Effort Distance (m) 0.75 0.60 0.45 0.30 0.20
Effort Force (n) 2 3 4 4.7 5
Work (j) 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.41 1
Rise (m) 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Run (m) 0.70 0.67 0.42 0.25 0.01
Slope 0.29 0.30 0.48 0.80 20

Screen Shot 2013-11-18 at 11.24.59

Here is the sample data:

Screen Shot 2013-11-18 at 11.25.56